Anunnaki Anunnaki Gods No More Books Dionysus Enki Enlil Marduk Ninmah Thoth Zecharia Sitchin


“Although Marduk [Satan to many Christians] proclaimed his supremacy over all the other gods, causing much unhappiness among the other Anunnaki, he was not endowed with knowledge of eternal life by his father Enki [Lucifer, to many].  But Marduk made these claims to the pharaohs and priests of Egypt, laying down a strict set of rules and rituals they had to perform to reach the eternal afterlife in the heavens.  He was referring to life on the planet Nibiru. 

“Marduk decreed that kings over Egypt had to be offsprings from the Anunnaki and Earthlings to make them superior to mere Earthlings.  This explains why Pharaohs believe they were gods.”  Marduk said he could give his Egyptian rulers the Anunnaki’s apparent eternal life to get “the kings to follow him into the afterlife, which led to murals in Egyptian tombs depicting their journey to the land of eternal life.” 

Marduk’s precepts, engraved on walls and papyrus that entombed pharaohs and nobles as Egyptian Books of the Dead, show the deceased’s soul must ward off dangers to get to Osiris’ gate, where it attends his judgment. 

Thoth (Ningishzidda, with an Ibis head) supervises Anubis (a human-bodied being with a Jackel’s head) weighing the dead Royal’s heart against a feather of Maat the justice goddess, to see if the dead guy’s soul qualifies to go with Osiris to Heaven (Nibiru) or must have his heart devoured instead.

If he’s light-hearted enough, Osiris’s son Horus takes the deceased, now an integrated soul and heart, to papa Osiris [Hardy, Spirit Dimension: 36].

Nibiru King Anu had signed a treaty with Alalu, his predecessor, that Marduk would succeed Alalu. But Anu had displaced Marduk, and now ruled Nibiru.  Marduk, in essence, prepared humanity for the time he and his minions would conquer Nibiru and bestow his rightful crown, as King of both Earth and Nibiru.   [Slave Species: 169-170]

In Egypt, people called Marduk Ra and drew him with a sun-crowned falcon head and cobra. His priests, who acted also as priests of his son Osiris, ran his cult center from Heliopolis (near Cairo). Marduk’s priests in Karnak and Luxor touted Marduk as “King of the Gods and father of all pharaohs.”  Hatshepsut, the female who adopted Moses, claimed Marduk fathered her.

When Marduk lived as an exile from Egypt, Egyptians called him Ra-Amon [hidden]. “Marduk dictated the Book of the Dead which gave the pharaohs instructions on how to reach the afterlife.”

Marduk gave Egypt to his children, then to his son Osiris and his grandson Seth–both children of Nut. Marduk fathered Osiris with her; Marduk’s son Geb fathered Seth with Nut.

Osiris, “to block Seth’s chance to breed descendants to rule Egypt, took Seth’s half-sister Isis as his spouse.” Seth wed his full sister Nephthys.

Osiris and Isis lived near Marduk in Lower Egypt. Seth and Nephthys lived upriver near Shamgaz’s Lebanon villa. Shamgaz told Seth that while Osiris lived, Marduk would favor him over Osiris, a mere grandson.


Shamgaz and Seth invited Osiris to a party for Ethiopia Queen Aso. At the party, Shamgaz drugged Osiris’ wine with a substance that opened him to their suggestions. They told Osiris to size-test a beautiful sarcophagus they’d made for him. He got in and passed out. They nailed the coffin shut and tossed it with the dead Osiris into the Nile. Though Seth proclaimed, “I, Marduk’s sole living issue, rule all Egypt,” Sarpanit and Marduk fished Osiris’s coffin from the river. Marduk asked Enki’s help.

Enki had Isis impregnate herself with semen from Osiris’s corpse.

“I carry Osiris’ son,” she said. “Our son, not Seth, shall in Lower Egypt rule.” While the astronauts ignored her, she bore Horus and readied him to fight Seth and avenge Osiris.

Osiris’ uncle Gibil taught Horus to pilot aircraft, made multi-headed missiles for him, and taught him and his Earthlings to make iron weapons. Well-armed, Horus’ army marched on Sinai.


Seth baited Horus to fight, pilot-to-pilot rather than hide behind an iron-weaponed enemy. Horus flew his plane at Seth’s but Seth hit Horus with a poison missile. Ningishzidda revived Horus with an antidote, then gave him a “blinding weapon.” Horus hit Seth with the weapon, then with a missile called “the harpoon.” Blind, Seth crashed. Horus bound him, crushed his testicles, and dragged him before the Anunnaki Council.

The Council let Seth settle Canaan although the Enlilites considered Canaan theirs.

Osiris took his place in later Egyptian dynasties as the resurrected Lord of Divine Law (Maat) and” god of the underworld, creative forces of nature and the imperishability of life.” Tellinger identifies Isis as the Egyptian version of Inanna.

“When Marduk, after a long absence, to the Land of the Two Narrows [Egypt] returned, Ningishzidda [Thoth] as its master he there found. With the aid of the offspring of the [Igigi/Nephilim] Anunnaki who Earthlings espoused did Ningishzidda the land oversee, what Marduk had once planned and instructed by Ningishzidda was overturned.”


Thoth Takes Souls First to Osiris’ Intermediary Judgment Realm

Books of the Dead from Thoth’s reign in Egypt show that when his Pharaohs or Nobles died, their souls first went to the intermediate kingdom of the murdered Osiris. Thoth, I speculate, cloned Osiris from the corpse Shamgaz and Seth had tossed in the Nile (and from which Isis had, with gametes Enki-Ptah extracted from Osiris’ testicles, impregnated herself with Horus). 

In Osiris’ Realm, the souls attend their own Judgment.  “Thoth, with an Ibis head is the divine scribe.  He oversees and records the weighing the hearts of the dead to evaluate their worthiness (performed by the jackal-headed Anubis), against the feather of Maat, the goddess of justice.” Horus takes the worthy souls to Osiris and bars unworthy ones from immortality.  [Hardy, 2020: 36]

For three centuries, Marduk’s and Ningishzidda’s forces clashed over Egypt.  Ptah-Enki, their father, told Ningishzidda to come with him to Britain and leave Egypt to Marduk. Marduk’s Pharaoh, Mentuhotep II then took Egypt’s approach to the Sinai Spaceport.

To derogate Ninmah and Enlil in Egypt, Marduk’s priests in Memphis and Heliopolis displayed the Bull Statue that stood for Enlil and Ninmah “pierced and deflated.” They made a huge Ram statue to show Marduk supreme and replaced Ningishzidda’s face on the Sphinx with the face of Osiris (Marduk’s son with Nut).

Marduk heard that Inanna told the Earthlings gods like her lived forever. He saw Inanna’s Uruk King Gilgamesh and other Earthlings obsess to live forever. Anunnaki “Gods” lived long but died after millennia or someone could kill them. Their lives shortened on Earth. Their Nibiran/Earthling descendants lived even shorter lives. But to shorter-lived Earthlings, Anunnaki seemed immortal.

Marduk Promised Pharaohs Eternal Life on Nibiru.  He used his pharaohs’ wishes to live forever to control them. If loyal to him, he’d mummify them too and rocket them to Nibiru to share eternity.

Marduk united Egypt and fought Inanna and the Enlilites.

He made Egypt worship one supreme deity, him. “So did Marduk, as Ra, above all other gods himself emplace, their powers and attributes he to himself assigned.

‘What have you overpowered?’ Enki to his son Marduk said. ‘Unheard of are your pretensions.’’

“‘The heavens my supremacy bespeak’” Marduk said; ‘The coming Age of the Ram, my sign, my rule proclaims.’”

Marduk made Babylon Sumer’s Capitol and, 2000 BCE, himself God of the gods.

He led a rite to imprint his authority over us and the Anunnaki. As we saw and felt the rite, we’d accept how he’d taken each Anunnaki Royals into himself. “Come to my New Year Ritual,” he told them and built temples for each in Babylon, theirs if they’d attend him as Top God.

The Royals didn’t show for Marduk’s ritual. Nonetheless, his priests enacted Earth’s story–Marduk version–each New Year. A priest played Marduk, as he–a planet–created Earth 4.5 billion years ago.

Marduk’s ritual proclaimed him “a celestial god from outer space. He battled Tiamat [Proto-Earth] and made the Asteroid Belt and Earth with Tiamat’s parts. He orbits all the other gods (planets).

Marduk’s ritual made Neptune Papa Enki’s planet. Marduk renamed Mercury into son Nabu. He renamed Venus (named after rival Inanna before) into wife Sarpanit. “Anunnaki leaders were declared subordinate to Marduk.” to whom “their attributes and powers were transferred.”

Marduk’s rite extolled him as the Anunnaki who made Earthlings.


In 2025 BCE, Enlil sent his son Ninurta to nuke the Sinai Spaceport before Marduk and his Egyptian forces could take it.  At the same time, Enlil sent Marduk’s brother Nergal to nuke Nabu, Marduk’s son and prophet and to destroy the cities of Canaan whom Nabu had recruited to Marduk’s campaign to win the Earth. Nergal bombed the south end of the Salt Sea.  The sea suddenly dropped 100 meters as the waters washed away Sodom, Gomorra, Zoar, and their people. The resulting nuclear wind storm (The Evil Wind) from Ninurta’s and Nergal’s nukes killed off Sumer’s Earthlings, but not the Anunnaki lords (they fled in planes, subs and surface ships) nor the people of Eridu and Bab-il, whom Enki and Marduk hustled into fallout shelters.

“For Marduk, a wrong was righted, his ambition attained, his prophecies fulfilled. The desolation of Sumer, the flight of its gods, the decimation of its people was not his doing. Those who suffered were punished for obstructing destiny.  The unforeseen nuclear storm confirmed the age of Marduk, the Ram, arrived.”


Marduk’s pharaohs started his Middle Kingdom in Egypt.  Marduk left to Egypt, where his priests dedicated themselves and Egypt to Marduk in his absence as Marduk/Ra Amon (unseen), as he’d move on to Bab-il, to make Babylon there his “Eternal City.”

Marduk’s son Nabu, although Nergal targeted him with nukes, escaped to a Mediterranean Island.  When Marduk took over as top Anunnaki god, Nabu became Lord of Borsippa (near Babylon) and may also, as Zarathustra, became Marduk’s prophet in Iran.

“Marduk left Egypt, where his priests dedicated themselves and Egypt to Marduk in his absence as Marduk/Ra Amon (unseen), as he’d move on to Bab-il, to make Babylon there his “Eternal City.”

Marduk’s son Nabu, though Nergal targeted him with nukes, escaped to a Mediterranean Island.  When Marduk took over as top Anunnaki god, Nabu became Lord of Borsippa (near Babylon) and may also, as Zarathustra, became Marduk’s prophet in Iran.

Babylon’s religion magnified Marduk’s mastery and highlighted his rivalry with the remaining Enlilite power–Enlil’s son Nannar of Ur, Lord of the Sinai Penisula and Assyria.


After Enlil and Enki recognized Marduk as Earth’s supreme Anunnaki lord, Marduk left priests to run Egypt for him.   Egyptians called Marduk Ra.  When he left Egypt to create his world capitol at Babylon in Iraq, the Egyptians referred to him as Ra-amon (unseen)

Marduk’s son Nabu* revised the Sumerian Enuma Elish for Babylon’s religion.  He ‘equated  Marduk with Nibiru, the homeplanet of the Anunnaki, and gave the name Marduk to the star/planet from space. It made Marduk the Lord in Heaven as on Earth.

In a twelve-day New Year Festival every Spring Equinox, Marduk’s priests in Babylon dramatized the revised Enuma.  They enacted Marduk as he created Earth and created us Earthlings.  The Babylonians watched the priests enact the history of the Anunnaki Goldmining Expedition to Earth.  The people imprinted the priests’ tales of wars at the Giza pyramids.  They saw how, just in time, Thoth saved Marduk from asphyxiation sentence for their brother Dumuzi’s death. Finally, the priests taught the Babylonians how Marduk, as the suffering god, returned victoriously.

Priests then paraded with Babylon’s King through the city; priests depicted the other gods subordinate to Marduk. 

They made seven ritual stops–to Earth, the seventh planet. 

The Festival explained to Babylon how Marduk had, on Nibiru, been the legal successor to Kingship before Anu usurped his crown there.

Marduk/Ra-amon’s Star-Religion diffused back to Egypt, where his priests declared him Aten–the Star of a Million Years. [End of Days: 110-123].

When Cyrus, the Persian King returned the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple of Yahweh.  Cyrus said he did it for Marduk, not for Yahweh [“Cyrus Cylinder”, found in 1879 in Babylon]

After 2024 BCE, most Anunnaki Royals returned to Nibiru.   But Marduk of the Enkiite Clan and Nannar and his aide Nusku of the Enlilite clan stayed on Earth. “On each side of the great religious divide there was now just One Great God of Heaven and Earth: Marduk for the Enkiites, Nannar/Sin [eventually Allah too] for the Enlilites.” [End: 267]

In 2000 BCE Marduk proclaimed Babylon Capitol of Sumer and, 2000 B.C., himself God of the gods.  He renamed Nibiru “Marduk.”  He held NewYear’s rituals where priests enacted him, as he–a planet–invaded the inner solar system, created Earth, then made Earthlings.  Marduk named Neptune “Nidimmud,’ (Enki), changed Mercury’s name from Adad to Nabu and Venus from “Inanna” to “Sarpanit.”

Marduk trained priests to study omens and a horoscope showing how planets–and their namesakes–affect Earthlings.  He degraded astronomical observations, Earthling support and women’s rights.  He barred women from high office and art.  He substituted Nabu for the Nibiran woman Nisaba as Deity of Writing. [ZS, Time: 350-368]

Many Sumerians who survived the fallout fled Marduk.  “Refugees were given asylum all around the Mesopotamia.  They converted their host countries into flourishing states.  Some ventured into more distant lands, accompanying the displaced gods.”  Indo-Aryans from southwest of the Caspian Sea mingled with the Sumerian refugees and migrated to the Indus Valley and brought with them the tales of Sumer, which, combined with the culture Inanna had given her domains in India, evolved into Hinduism. [ ZS, Time: 370-371]

Under Marduk’s New Age, “gods guided the policies of their countries through signs and omens.  For many millennia, Anu, Enlil and the other Anunnaki leaders [had] made decisions affecting the Anunnaki; Enlil by himself was Lord of Command as far as mankind was concerned. Now signs and omens in the heavens guided decisions.  Celestial omens–planetary conjunctions, eclipses, lunar halo, stellar backgrounds were sufficient by themselves.  No godly intervention or participation was required; the heavens alone foretold the fates.

“Astrology developed with fortune-teller priests on hand to interpret observations of celestial phenomena.  Astronomical tablets of the Babylonians were computer printouts (Ephemerides), copies from pre-existing sources of zodiacal constellations.  All the Babylonians knew was how to use them, translating into Babylonian the Sumerian procedure texts.  Hellenistic, Persian and Indian astrology derived from such records.

“Deterioration of astronomy was symptomatic of overall decline and regression in the sciences, arts, laws, the social framework” under Marduk. “Medicine deteriorated to sorcery.  Harshness and coarseness replaced the former compassion and elegance.”

Under Marduk, there was “a decline in the role of women and their status as compared to Sumerian times.”  Marduk hated women.  Ninmah had pushed for primacy of his rival, Ninurta, Inanna got him buried alive in the Pyramid.  Goddesses in charge of the arts and sciences assisted the construction of the Eninnu in Lagash as a symbol of defiance of Marduk’s claims that his time had come. [ZS, Time: 356- 368]

2024 BCE, when fallout from the Enlilites’ nuking of Sinai and the cities on the south shore of the Salt (which became the Dead) Sea stormed over Sumer,  “In Ur, Sumer’s city of kingship, Nannar to his father Enlil for help cried, “Father who begot me great god who to Ur had granted kingship. turn the Evil Wind away, Nannar pleaded.”  But the Commander replied, “Take hold of your spouse Ningal, flee the city.”  Nannar and Ningal got out in time, but he was crippled by the nuclear storm and his city decimated [Enki: 21]. 

He fled to the moon, then, when the radiation dissipated, returned to his other temple in Harran, Sumer’s city of trade and learning. 

In 610 BCE, the Nannar’s Assyrian army “retreated to Harran for a last stand against the Babylonians and lost. Nannar, angrily left Earth again for his place on the moon. 


ADAPA GUPI, the High Priestess at Nannar’s Harran temple, at age 95, induced him to return to Harran, and got Marduk’s ok. She had inscribed on stone columns in Harran: “ ‘In the 16th year of Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, when Nannar became angry with his city and his temple and went up to heaven and the city and the people in it went to ruin.” But Adapa Gupi stayed on. Daily, for years, she went to the Nannar’s desolate shrines. Then, in the abandoned sacred precinct she discovered a robe that belonged to Nannar.” Holding the hem of the robe [did it have a com-device attached?], “she prostrated herself,” prayed for him to return and rule Sumer again.

“Adapa Gupi offered Nannar a deal: if he’d return and use his authority and divine powers to make her son NABUNA’ID the next imperial king, reigning in Babylon over both the Babylonian and Assyrian domains, Nabuna’id would restore Nannar’s temple in Ur and reinstate Nannar as Messiah, in all the lands where Sumerians dwelt.” Nannar, in “dream vision” agreed to her deal. 

Adapa Gupi wrote, “‘Nabuna’id to the kingship of Sumer and Akkad, all the lands from the border of Egypt, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, in his hands he entrusted.” Adapa Gupi begged Nannar to persuade Nibiran chiefs “to be at Nabuna’id’ side as he battled his enemies” so he could “rebuild the Ehulhul temple” in Harran and restore Harran to its greatness. 

In 556 BCE Nannar returned to Harran in his spacecraft, “The Boat of Heaven.” Enlil’s Chancellor, Nuksu, signaling Commander Enlil’s approval, joined Nannar in a ceremony consecrating the rebuilt temple. 

Nannar, champion of the Enlilite Assyrians, backed Nabuaid to rule all Iraq; this enraged Marduk’s priests in Babylon.  Nannar helped Nabuaid with “the weapon of Anu” which could from the air above “crush enemies on the Earth below with a beam of light.” [ZS, 12th Planet: 113 – 116]

In 539 BCE, Cyrus (Koresh) of Persia of the Achaemenian tribe, leading “a medley of peoples and states on the Iranian Plateau that included the olden Sumerian Anshan, Elam and Medes, emerged from Babylon’s northern outskirts.” 

The Achaeans captured Nabuaid who had fled Marduk’s priests in Babylon who persecuted him for honoring Nannar, Marduk’s rival.  Marduk’s priests rejoiced when the Persians overthrew Nabuaid.  They considered Cyrus a savior against Nannar and the Enlilite Assyrians.  When the Persians entered Babylon, Marduk’s Priests and Marduk welcomed Cyrus them.

Cyrus returned the Israelite hostages and their sacraments back to Jerusalem for a new temple there for Yahweh.



Around 1000 CE Marduk (AKA Ra, Zeus, Satan), Anunnaki Lord of Babylon, sent his son Nabu* north to Persia (Iran) to herald him.
Nabu, called Zarathustra (below) in Persia, preached that his dad–both Messiah and Supreme God–would make Persia great.

Nabu’s proclamation echoed his rewrite of Marduk’s Babylonian New Year Ritual.  The Ritual featured a priest who enacted Marduk absorbing titles, powers and personalities of each Anunnaki Royal who’d been worshipped before Marduk and Babylon won the world.

The rite imprinted Earthlings on Marduk as top god.

The ‘Avesta”, the Zoroastrian holy book, features 17 hymns to Ahura Mazda and says, follow the [Anunnaki model of] Good [enthusiastic slavery], he said, and Good beats evil.

Zoroastrianism touts Marduk as boss of angels (other Anunnaki) who do what Marduk says.  [Bramley, 1990: 114; Save Species: 301-302]

Marduk played top god not only to the Persians but also to their rivals, the Mycenean Greeks.  The unifier of Greece, Alexander of Macedonia (Marduk’s son with Olympia, Queen of the Macedonians) won Persia, Babylon and Egypt.

After Muslims, in the seventh Century conquered Persia, surviving Zoroastrian Aryans migrated to India, where they are known as the PARSEES and comprise 2.5% of India’s religious [World Factbook, C!A 2005].

More at

Minoan CRETE Modeled Partnership Paradigm Possibilities to the Anunnaki-Spawned Religion

Around 6000 BCE, immigrants from Ninmah’s fiefs in Anatolia “brought the Goddess with them. For the next four thousand years, there was an evolution of lively and artistic lifestyle that, in its highest form, evolved into the Goddess religion of Crete–a perk and a promise rather than a problem like that of the other Anunnaki-spawned religions.

“In 2000 BCE Crete entered the Middle Minoan period when in the civilized world the Goddess was displaced by warlike male gods. People the Anunnaki influenced still revered as [or conflated with]–Hathor and Isis in Egypt, Astarte or Ishtar in Babylon, or as Arina in Anatolia.” But Marduk-controlled areas considered Goddess Ninmah secondary–a consort or mother of more powerful male gods. Male dominance, wars of conquest and counter-conquest gripped most of Eurasia. Once nomadic people of the steppes got bronze weapons, they took Ninmah’s domains and spread war and Marduk’s influence in Europe and India.

“But on Crete where the Goddess was still supreme, there were no signs of war.” Cretans traced descent lines through women, not men. Crete, the last bastion of Ninmah’s partnership-based society, represented god as female.

In Crete, even into the later Marduk/Zeus/Mycenean period, “Worship of nature pervaded everything. Priestesses of the Goddess, not priests, play the central role in rituals.” Life on Crete “was pervaded by ardent faith in Nature, the source of all creation and harmony. This led to the love of peace, a horror of tyranny and respect for the law. People of different racial stocks worked cooperatively for the common good.

“There was sharing of wealth” and a high standard of living even for peasants.”

The Minoan capital and port, “Knossos, had one hundred thousand inhabitants, streets paved and drained, fronted with neat three-story houses. Exercise and sports involved both men and women. Public ceremonies, mostly religious, processions, banquets, and acrobatic displays, among them bull games in theaters and arenas. [Eisler: 30-31, 35-36, 43]

Ninmah preached sexual, ethnic and domestic partnership. Her lands touted nonviolence, trade and travel. Her peaceful unfortified cities lacked arms caches, armies or slaves. People worshipped Ninmah across the Eastern Mediterranean islands in the Minoan Federation (named after the Minos, King of Crete).

Crete’s partnership society gives us a model of the belief that “government should represent interests of the people” rather than the interests of the rulers.
Top-Down Polytheism with Zeus Marduk at the Top

Marduk’s Aryans (AKA Kurgians) and his Prophet Nabu brought Marduk’s model of top god with lesser gods in charge of specific tasks to Greece and other European lands who worshiped  Ninmah, the Great Goddess. 

People worshipped Ninmah across the Eastern  Mediterranean islands in the Minoan Federation (after the Minos, King of Crete).

In the 16th Century, BCE Marduk’s Aryans migrated south in Greece toward the Aegean.  They became the MYCENEAN Greeks; they worshipped Marduk whom they called Zeus

The Minos, Ninmah’s King in Crete, got the Mycenean Kings to send him their heirs as hostages at his palace at Knossos.  The Mycenean Kings dared not war lest the Minos kill their kids. The hostage princes and princesses formed teams of bull-vaulters with bulls they trained.  They vaulted at rituals High Priestess Ariadne led. 

Ariadne took Theseus, the hostage from Thebes for her lover.  They planned a hostage revolt.  An astronomical event–probably Nibiru’s nearing– caused the eruption of Thera (Stromboli) and the Nile floods of Moses’ time.  In Crete, tidal waves sunk the Minoan Fleet at Knossos Harbor.  In the chaos, Ariadne, Theseus and the Royal Mycenean hostages overthrew the Minos and his empire and sailed away.

In the chaos of the storms, Ariadne and Theseus’ revolt succeeded. 

He abandoned her and her priestesses on the Isle of Lesbos and sailed back to Thrace.

 Such was the fate of Ninmah’s partnership-based societies throughout Eurasia as Marduk in his many personas trained us to think in terms of dominator-consciousness. Ninmah’s devotees practiced spiritual, political and domestic partnership rather than the dominator-consciousness of the religions spawned by either Enlil (in his role as Yahweh) or  Marduk (in his guises as Ra, Yahweh and Ahura Mazda).  To the Myceneans, Marduk was Zeus; his son Nabu, Dionysus. [Eisler, 1988: 27-77]

The Mycenaeans displaced the Minoans and merged Minoan gods (the Anunnaki gods) with Marduk-Zeus’ lineup of Anunnaki Royals.  Myceneans blended Marduk’s New Years’ enactment of the planets with their blended version.  They conflated  Ninmah with Gaia (Goddess of Earth).  Alalu and sometimes Anu became Uranus to the Greeks.  In a dramatic turn-about, Myceneans said Cronus (Anu) castrated  Uranus whereas Enki wrote that it was the other way around: Alalu “bit off Anu’s manhood.”  The Greeks regarded Enki as Prometheus and blended him with his brother Epimetheus.

Aryan cattle keepers and their priests who embraced Marduk’s now warlike preferences invaded southern Europe from the Asiatic and northeast Europe.   The invaders replaced Ninmah’s partnership-based, matrilineal (trace descent and inheritance through females). 

Minoans and Ninmah-devoted societies practiced matrilocality(men moved to their wives’ homes) and farmed in a settled area.  Goddess societies created large planned towns.  Their spiritual beliefs, “focused on the agricultural cycle of birth, death and  regeneration embodied in the female principle, a Mother Creatrix.”

Instead of the Great Mother as the spiritual pinnacle for society, the invaders forced Marduk’s Anunnaki model of religion and male war gods, suppression and sacrifice of women, arms races, slavery and pervasive hierarchical suppression.  They “exalted virile, heroic warrior-gods of the shining, thunderous sky.  Dagger and battle-ax “represent the gods’ powers” and dominate the invaders’ symbolism.

The invaders lived in  “patrilineal, socially stratified herding units which lived in small villages or seasonal settlements, grazing animals over vast areas.   

In Greece, Goddess-based cultures succumbed to the Mycenean, then Dorian Greeks and became patrilineal, patrilocal and obsessed with hierarchy and ever more lethal bronze and then iron weapons “to kill, plunder and enslave.”

Eisler writes, “The invaders placed a higher value on the power that takes–symbolized by the masculine blade– rather than gives life. The invaders worshipped the blade in their dominator society, ruled by gods and men.  Male dominance, warfare, and enslavement of women became the norm.  The glorification of the lethal power of the sharp blade accompanied organized slaughter of other human beings, destruction, and looting of their property and subjugation of their persons.”  Where the invaders encountered goddess-worshippers like the Minoans, they “massacred most of the local men and children but spared some of the women, whom they took for themselves as concubines, wives or slaves” whom the invaders sacrificed when the men who took them died.  [Eisler:43-50]

In former areas of Goddess worship, “towns and villages disintegrated, painted pottery vanished; as did shrines, frescoes, sculptures, symbols and scripts.”  Where Marduk’s minions prevailed, “we find warrior-chieftain graves with human sacrifices of women, children, animals and caches of weapons surrounding the dead chiefs.” Instead of the unwalled residences of Goddess times, the invaders created fortified structures on hilltops.” Former Goddess areas of Europe ceased display of the ubiquitous female figurines [Eisler: 51-53]



Around 560 BCE an Anunnaki Royal bore Guatama (Buddha, The Awakened One) as heir to the King of Kapilavastu  (Nepal). 

Guatama joined a group of meditators who sought ongoing spiritual experiences and quit sex and material pleasure.   He studied the work of these “proto-Buddhists,” almost died of starvation, lived in Ganges Province as a married householder.  In 535 BCE, “he entered transcendental being.”

Buddha rejected the push from Anunnaki-Hindu religious practices and did not preach “any type of god, need for a savior, prayer, religious rituals, eternal life after death, or the Indian caste system of segregating classes.” Buddha and the Buddhists accept all humans as equal. 

“Buddhists believe one must go through several cycles of birth.”

When you release the attachment to what you want or wish to avoid to the appreciation of what you have, they say, you can escape further rebirths.

Gautama was the world’s first real rebel against the Anunnaki religion. Jesus, five hundred years later in India and Nepal studied Buddha’s teachings and also “stood up to the violent Anunnaki gods of Sumer, with whom Gautama interacted, face-to-face.

Buddhism spread to Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos as Theravada Buddhism, to China (in 500 CE), Korea, and Japan as Mahayana Buddhism.

The world’s Buddhists in 2006, numbered 338’621,00 and comprised 6% of the world’s religious adherents. [Slave Species: 303-306; Encyclopedia Britannica &]


Jmmanuel was born March 20, not December 25 (that’s the Roman killing ritual of Saturnalia). Many and conflicting accounts reference Jthe fractal or archetype of Jesus as the embodiment of empathy, compassion, love. The love archetype resonates powerfully now as humanity reflects on itself and its place in the cosmos.

I tarry with many people who say they were Jesus in a past life or they tell me they embody Jesus now. Some such seekers say the Jesus part of them stirred when Earth lined up with the Milky Way Galaxy core. The Jesus archetype of compassion, unconditional love and empathy resonated within these seekers. For them, all that was, is and will are potentials of a master hologram where each aspect of all universes and dimensions holds a fractal of each subatomic particle, molecule, ocean, continent, being, planet, star, galaxy, universe.

Brinegar says Jesus may represent Bramley’s Maverick ET race in its campaign against the Illuminati/Custodial Race that makes us suffer for their purposes. Jesus and the Mavericks are “here to harvest souls from Earth into the heavenly realms, saving a portion of humanity from this matrix in which we all find ourselves imprisoned” [2016: 419]

Jesus led the resistance to Enlil-Yahweh, the genocidal Commander of the gold mining expedition from the planet Nibiru to Earth. Jesus, from his home in France and in North America, defied Yahweh and taught “‘Help the poor. Sustain the feeble. Do evil to no one. Do not covet what you do not possess. Reverence Woman, the foundation of all that is good and beautiful.'”

Bloodlines, royalty, caste are all instruments of the hierarchical obsession of the Anunnaki who impose hierarchy to feed their lust for power, control and greed.

All consciousnesses, those of the poor, the feeble, handicapped, oppressed, animals, planets, solar systems, galaxies and universes are as much a part of the Prime Creator as kings, priests, prophets, messiahs and Illuminati.

we’re all holographic partials that contain the light of all other consciousnesses as well as the light of the Creator-of-All. The Creator contains us all.

Dominator-consciousness for modern times:

In the 1920s, the Anunnaki fostered a new religion with the formula of Prophet, Savior, Martyr, Religion Opposed to Rival Religions we have seen with Nabu and Marduk, John and Jesus, Zarathustra and Ahura Mazda.   Americans of that era warmed to the prophet Joseph Smith, who claimed repeated contact and instruction from giant Anunnaki.
 [Slave Species: 403]


After rivals martyred Smith, the religion he preached, Mormonism, gave America another Anunnaki religion. Mormonism followed same dominator-consciousness models Judaism, Christianity and Islam followed: prophet, savior, martyr, religious organization pitted against others.   

The Anunnaki still pitted us against each other and deflected attention to the very system–dominator-consciousness–that pervaded the mind-set of all religions against which Buddha and Jesus had warned.

In 1920, 16 year-old Joseph Smith prayed in the woods near his home in Upstate New York (Palmyra).  God and his son, Jesus, said Smith, appeared to and spoke to him.  “I saw a pillar of light which descended until it rested on me,’ Smith wrote.  “I saw two personages standing above me in the air, he said.

One of them pointed to the other and spake, ‘This is my beloved son. Hear him.”

In 1823 Smith visioned an angel who introduced itself as MORONI.  Moroni told Smith about ancient buried  plates.  Smith’s job, said Moroni: dig up, translate and publicize the true history of North America the plates revealed.  Moroni returned often to Smith.

In 1827 Moroni directed Smith to a mound the Smith home. Smith and his wife Emma dug up a stone box that held the plates.

Smith translated the plates, not by looking at them, but by looking at a seer stone in the bottom of his hat. Smith published the translation in 1830 as the Book of Mormon
After the translation was complete, Smith said that he returned the plates to the angel Moroni, so they could never be examined.The Book of Mormon describes God’s dealings with three civilizations in the Americas, mainly with the Nephites of the Great Lakes (Who became the Iroquis) and the Lamanites, who – it states – existed in the Americas from about 600 BCE to about 400 CE.  The Mormon book also deals with the rise and fall of a Jaredite nation from the Iraq which migrated to North America after  Yahweh’s son Ninurta bombed Marduk’s launch tower in Babylon. The Jaredite civilization in America arrived in the New World around 590 BCE.  The Mormon book asserts Jesus visited the Iroquois’ area.

Smith said Moroni returned to him in his bedroom and repeated the same, apparently recorded
messages word-for-word, of the apocalypse to come.  Moroni’s message“was beamed into his bedroom leaving the “angel” floating off the ground. The message ended with the floating angel exiting the window in a pillar of light until it vanished into the sky. The next day he had the same message broadcast to him by the same angel while in the field.


Here’s what Wikipedia [] relates Smith’s Martyrdom.  Unlike Jesus, Smith fought back and shot a few of his attackers.

In 1844 Smith’s disaffected followers at Nauvoo and Hancock County, Illinois published a newspaper–the Nauvoo Expositor. The newspaper revealed Smith practiced polygamy. Eight of Smith’s wives had already married to other men at the time they married Smith.

The Nauvoo city council passed an ordinance declaring the newspaper a public nuisance designed to promote violence against Smith and his followers.  Smith, as Nauvoo’s mayor ordered the city marshal to destroy the paper and the press on Destruction of the press type was orderly and peaceably. 

Smith’s critics  sought legal charges against Smith for the destruction of the press,  treason and inciting riot. An etching of the Carthage Jail, 1885

Warrants were brought against Smith and dismissed in Nauvoo courts on a writ of habeas corpus. Smith declared martial law and called out his Nauvoo Legion, an organized city militia of about 5,000 men, to protect Nauvoo from outside violence.

Illinois Governor Thomas Ford traveled to Hancock County to the county seat in Carthage. Ford guaranteed Smith’s safety. Joseph and his brother Hyrum along with the other fifteen city council members and some friends, surrendered to Carthage constable William Bettisworth on the charge of riot. Upon arrival at Carthage, the Smith brothers were charged with treason against the state of Illinois for declaring martial law in Nauvoo. The judge ordered the Smith brothers held in jail until they could be tried for treason–a capital offense.

The anti-Mormon “Carthage Greys”, a local militia, were assigned to protect the Smiths.

Cyrus Wheelock went to visit Joseph Smith. He had a pass from the governor instructing the jailors to let him pass unmolested.  He hid a pistol in his overcoat, which had belonged to John Taylor.  Most visitors were rigidly searched, but the guards forgot to check Wheelock’s overcoat, and he was able to smuggle the gun to Smith. 

Before a trial could be held, a mob of about 200 armed men, their faces painted black with wet gunpowder, stormed the jail.  One of the jailers wrote that Smith, expecting the Nauvoo Legion, said, “Don’t trouble yourself … they’ve come to rescue me.”

The Carthage Greys reportedly feigned defense of the jail by firing shots or blanks over the attackers’ heads, and some of the Greys joined the mob, who rushed up the stairs. The mob first attempted to push the door open. Joseph Smith and the other prisoners pushed back and prevented this. A member of the mob fired a shot through the door. Hyrum Smith was shot and died immediately.

Taylor and Richards used a long walking stick in order to deflect the guns as they were thrust inside the room, from behind the door. Smith used the pistol Wheelock had given him and hit several attackers (Wills, Voras, Gallaher).  Smith made his way towards the window. As he prepared to jump down the attackers shot him in the back from a musket on the ground outside.  Smith fell from the second-story window.

Wills, Voras, Gallaher were indicted for the murder of the Smiths. Wills, Voras, and Gallaher fled the county and were never brought to trial.  



You can, with the formula in CAPS below, keep the actual spiritual experiences you had within any religious institution yet free yourself from the institution’s intolerances.

Remember, if it is your experience, when you felt an ecstatic connection with everyone, everything and the divine in a church, synagogue, mosque or temple run by organized, hierarchical religion. Remember the beauty of the locale, the feeling of oneness with people leading and participating in religious rituals and songs in the house of worship. Focus on the actual, internal experience you have as you feel the wonder of oneness with all.

If you wish to free yourself from the intellectual dogma, money-raising and pressure to conform to the religion’s social expectations, do what the cues CAPITALIZED below suggest.








ANUNNAKI, FALSE GODS extends Zecharia Sitchin’s translations from clay tablets that underlie the Bible. Ten thousand years ago, scribes in ancient Sumer (Iraq) wrote on these tablets what they said the Anunnaki gods (tall people from the sky) dictated. Sitchin asked Dr. Lessin to keep public attention on his legacy by creating an educational program.

The Anunnaki are Homo sapiens like us but who live hundreds of thousands of years. They said they rocketed to Iraq 450,000 years ago from a planet called Nibiru to harvest gold to send back (via Mars) to Nibiru to powder into an atmospheric shield. They mined abundant gold in Africa until, 300,000 years ago, their miners mutinied.

To replace the mutineers, Anunnaki geneticists created short-lived slaves, called Adamites, adapted from their own genome but modified with a bit of clay, copper and genes from an intelligent hominoid, Homo erectus (Bigfoot’s ancestor) already living in Africa. Two hundred thousand years ago, Enki, their Chief Scientist, begat a line of Earthlings called Adapites with two Adamite girls.

Fifty thousand years ago Enki and an Adamite beauty begat Noah, who carried Enki’s longevity genes and ruled the Iraqi city of Sharuppak. Enki saved Noah and many of his subjects from the Deluge of 13,000 years ago. The Anunnaki had Noah’s people and other flood survivors proliferate and build cities in the Middle East and Egypt with up to 50,000 inhabitants.

The Anunnaki ruled the new civilizations as gods with descendants of Noah’s sons as intermediaries. The Anunnaki gave us the best and the worst of planet-wide civilization–kings, historians, taxes, temples, priests, bicameral congresses, record-keeping, law codes, library catalogs, furnaces, kilns, wheeled vehicles, paved roads, medicines, cosmogony, cosmology, festivals, beer, food recipes, art, music, music instruments, music notes, dance, textiles, and multicolored apparel.

Sumerian schools taught mathematics, architecture, theology, writing, grammar, botany, zoology, geography. They displayed but did not pass on a world-wide energy grid, air, submarine and interplanetary transport vehicles and advanced computers.

They also gave us hierarchy, misogyny, violence, greed, slavery, debt and war that featured genocide and weapons of mass destruction.

In 2024 BCE Anunnaki ruined their eastern Mediterranean cities with nuclear blasts and fallout storms.

Most of the Anunnaki returned to Nibiru by 311 BCE. But some stayed. They and their descendants (the power elite) rule us to this day. They and their spawn created and perpetuate exclusive, hostile nations and religions to keep us divided. They addicted us to credit institutions to keep us slaving.

Their tales of their stay on Earth before they made our ancestors, as well as what our forefathers directly saw, imprinted us with the values of their hierarchic, male-run, master-slave-enemy mentality. We assumed values of extraction, pollution, monetary monopoly and obsession with gold.

The genetics team that created us also gave us the capacity and preserved the histories Sitchin and others translated so we can overcome the liabilities they left us.

Recently, Anunnaki Royals returned to Earth, joining Enki and those who remained. The returning Anunnaki pledge to end the era of Marduk’s control on Earth (Kali Yuga), make sure he makes amends for the suffering he fostered here to secure his control, and usher in the Age of Enki (Aquarian, Satya Yuga).

Long-lived (hundreds of thousands of years) extraterrestrial Homo Sapien Goliaths from the planet Nibiru mined gold on Earth 400,000 years ago. 300,000 years ago they created Earth-adapted, short-lived mine slaves—that’s us–from their genome. We called them “Anunnaki,” People-From-The-Sky or Serpent-People. They taught us hierarchy, violence, greed, slavery, debt. They made us worship them, call them “gods.”

200,000 years ago, Enki, their Chief Scientist, begat a line of Earthlings whom he exalted. In 11,000 [all dates to follow are—before the common era—unless otherwise designated] Enki and his lover Batanash begat Noah. After Noah’s flood, Anunnaki ruled through Noah’s sons’ descendants.

The Anunnaki ruined their eastern Mediterranean cities with nuclear blasts and fallout storms. Most of Anunnaki returned to Nibiru by 311 BCE.

But some stayed. They and their descendants (the power elite) rule us to this day.

The Anunnaki taught one-upmanship. We watched them kill each other to rule; the elite today still kill each other and each others’ followers. Our ancestors plundered, enslaved or killed whomever their master, the dominant Nibiran in their area, told them. We Earthlings still plunder, enslave and kill whomever our elites tell us.

The Anunnaki loosed plagues, nuclear bombs and other weapons of mass killing upon us. They forced mutually unintelligible languages and scripts upon us and withheld knowledge. They and their spawn made exclusive, hostile nations and religions to keep us divided. They addicted us to credit institutions to keep us slaving.

The Anunnaki stand feet taller and live millennia longer than we. We killed in their names: Allah (= Sumerian Nannar), Yahweh (Enlil, sometimes Adad) and Inanna (Ishtar)–Nibiran Expedition personnel all. They bred us to slave in mines, armies, businesses, schools, governments, farms, factories, brothels and building projects.

We worshipped and them and the “royal” lines of ever-murderous hybrid rulers and priests–the elite–they begat.

Most of the Anunnaki returned to Nibiru. A few who remained on Earth and the hybrids through whom they still rule give all factions and nations credit and arms and engineer wars among them. The elite runs competing religions which each say they’ll bring back the Anunnaki god of their faith and defeat gods and followers of other faiths.

The ancient scenarios of divide-and-rule, to this very day, make us deplete our resources, pollute our environment and wage war. The matrix the Anunnaki modeled makes us recklessly exploit our resources and pollute. The elite and their ET controllers see that we never feel our unity as a planet of peace.

Anunnaki and hybrid overseers imprinted their greed, one-upmanship and dominator-consciousness on us. They modeled, dictated and indoctrinated avarice, domination, slavery, competition, hate and violence.

Yahweh and Allah-Nannar murdered many. These Anunnaki lacked compassion, showed neither love nor divinity.

Other Anunnaki–Enki, Ningishzidda and Ninmah–love us and continue to work to free us from the mental virus with which Yahweh and Allah have infected us. Enki, Ninmah and Ningishzidda can, when we stop warring, advance our astronomy, medicine, energy, rocket science and survival strategies.

The Anunnaki dictated their world view to Earthling scribes of Iraq (then called Sumer). Clay tablets the gods dictated say that back on Nibiru, a king and his military ruled. The gods dictated tales of how, 450,000 years ago, they got gold from Earth and how, till 300,000 years ago, when they created us for the mines, they shipped the gold back to Nibiru. Their tales of their stay on Earth before they made our ancestors as well as what our forefathers directly saw, imprinted us with the values of their hierarchic, male-run, master-slave-enemy mentality. We assumed values of extraction, pollution, monetary monopoly and obsession with gold.

Millions of years before the Anunnaki got to Earth, other ET terraformers seeded hominoids here. The terraformers introduced advanced hominoids, ancestors of Erectus, Neanderthal and Bigfoot, to Earth so the Anunnaki could implant Erectus genes into their Homo Sapien genome and thus adapt their genome to Earth. The Anunnaki created what the terraformers planned for us—they made us Homo Sapien like them, but adapted to Earth [Pye, 2013]. Eighty percent of our DNA is from off-planet [Tellinger, 2011b].

We progressed when the Anunnaki gave us new technologies. Every 3,600 years, they gave us marvelous devices, astronomical and geological information, new crops, new chemistry and ever-more lethal weapons. Suddenly, our architecture, public projects, weaponry, and military training revved up and we build new cities, temples and armies.

Our Sumerian ancestors didn’t imagine gods who made them literate and told them what to write. Rather than makeup gods, Sumerians saw, heard and bred with Anunnaki as very tall, long-lived. Sumerians watched the giants run machines and computers; they saw them fire weapons of mass destruction. They saw Anunnaki with small devices, MEs, overpower other Anunnaki.

Sumerians saw Anunnaki speak into devices and heard voices respond. The Anunnaki said the voices came from spacecraft beyond sight and the moon, southern Africa, the Andes and the Indus Valley, as well as from visible rockets, shuttlecraft, orbiting stations and planes.

In Sumer, then all over this planet, the gods gave our ancestors ever-advanced technologies and models so their half-breeds could rule, relate, mine, store data, compute, write, build, trade and war.

Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Indians, Norse, Chinese, Tibetans, Central and South Americans all spoke of these gods who rode Celestial Chariots, threw thunderbolts and, when Nibiru neared Earth, gave us crops, herds, devices, medicine, laws, knowledge and more Nibiran genes.

In 2000, Zecharia Sitchin showed us clay and stone proof. Rocks and inscribed records astronomical, geological, geographical, chemical and biological info Sumerians said gods gave them, info our scientists only got millennia later.

Sitchin solved the mysteries of missing hominid links never found since they didn’t exist. He showed how they periodically upleved our society and its industries. No missing physical links existed since we appeared suddenly, when Enki and his cohorts added Erectus genes to their genome. We got advanced technology when Sumerian “gods” gave it to us.

Sumerians tagged Anunnaki aircraft, submarines, helicopters, spaceships, weapons and computers with their own words and words the gods taught them. Our ancestors called aircraft and rockets “skyships, “celestial chariots” and “fire-breathing dragons.” They named helicopters “whirlbirds.” A whale that swallowed Jonah = a submarine; weapons = “brilliances.” We labeled Nibiran medical and scientific achievements “miracles.”

Our ancestors recorded the history, scientific words and concepts the gods taught them. What gods called “MEs” we call computer programs. Our cultures added descriptions, metaphors, similes and analogies to the words the gods gave us. We can now decode our ancestors’ metaphors for the gods and their technology instead of dismissing the weapons, vehicles and personalities of gods as superstitious myths.

Unless ETs intervene to save us or the weight of Sumerian evidence convinces Muslims, Jews and Christians to give up their fear gods, their compulsions to unquestioningly obey governmental and religious authorities, their impulse to crush others and the mental programs with which the genocidal Anunnaki imposed on us to keep us divided and conquered, we’ll keep warring.

We are one family and we’ve all been duped by the Anunnaki and their halfbreed successor-line of murderous manipulators. We must recover our oneness as a species. As we face new ET demands for our allegiance and gold, we can negotiate for life extension, medicine, free energy, space transport and other ET technologies. We and they can support each other and face our common challenges–environmental, social and psychological.

The truth of our genetics frees us from the master-slave, god-devotee, boss-worker, lord-tenant model the ETs imposed on us. We can end physical and economic slavery, hierarchic obsession, derogation of women, gold lust, antagonistic religions and nations the gods and the hybrid elite they created dictated.

Free of short, desperate lives, we’ll create our future. We’ll activate our latent Nibiran genes, better our genome and join galactic civilization.


Nabu: Ancient Mesopotamian God of Scribes and Wisdom

Nestled in the fertile region around the River Tigris and Euphrates, the historical region of ancient Mesopotamia has long been regarded as one of the earliest cradles of civilization. Home to ancient cultures of Assyria, Babylon, and Sumer, it was also the home of diverse gods and goddesses.  Sumer, one of the oldest civilizations in this region, influenced the developing pantheons of both Assyrians and Babylonians. And the God Nabu, one of the most important deities in  Mesopotamia, was established very early in history.

Close up of the giant statue to the god Nabu stood at the entrance of the Temple of Nabu which is now housed in the Iraq Museum in Iraq. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP / CC BY-SA 4.0)

Close up of the giant statue to the god Nabu stood at the entrance of the Temple of Nabu which is now housed in the Iraq Museum in Iraq. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP /  CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Earliest Origins of Nabu

Nabu is a major deity that was worshipped by both the Assyrians and Babylonians and formed a crucial part of their pantheon. He was considered as the patron god of scribes, and a god of writing, learning, prophecies, and of wisdom. Nabu was often also viewed as the god of fertility and prosperity and dictated the yield of a harvest.

Nabu’s name is originally derived from a Semitic root:  nb’. This can be translated as: “to designate.” Nabu’s name is considered to mean “the announcer” or “the herald”. This name can refer to his powers as a prophet, and can also be related to scribes, reflecting his powers to call forth words and events. Another proposed interpretation puts his name into a verbal adjective, translating into “the one who is named.” One of the earliest spellings of his name, as attested from surviving writings, is  dna-bi-um, which was later normalized as Nabium and Nabu.

Nabu is cognate to the  Sumerian deity called Nisaba. The latter was an earlier, Sumerian goddess of writing, learning, and the harvest. She was also the patroness of scribes. Gradually, her cult spread amongst the Assyrians and Babylonians, where it grew into the God Nabu. By the first millennium BC, his worship was widespread and he began to be regarded as the son of the god Marduk.

This was a clear sign of his importance and high esteem. His name was later used as a part of the names of the most powerful rulers, such as  Nebuchadnezzar and  Nabonidus. His name even appears in the Bible! A passage in the book of Isaiah mentions the god  Nebo in reference to the humbling of the idols of Babylon. This gives us an insight that his cult survived a very long time, throughout the history of Mesopotamia. Nabu was also the patron god of the city of Borsippa. This was one of the most important Sumerian cities, located some 17 kilometers (11 miles) from Babylon and known as its sister city.

Originally, Nabu had a consort of his own. This was the  goddess Tashmetum ( Tashmit), known as “the Lady who listens.” She was called upon to grant requests and listen to the prayers of the devoted. However, in later periods his consort becomes the goddess  Nanaya, a deity of warfare, sex, and voluptuousness. Nanaya was originally the consort of an obscure and minor god of the Sumerian pantheon known as  Muati. However, as Muati gradually became worshipped and cognate with Nabu, so did Nanaya become his wife.

A giant statue to the god Nabu stood at the entrance of the Temple of Nabu in Nimrud, Iraq. It can be seen today at the Iraq Museum in Baghdad in Iraq. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP / CC BY-SA 4.0)

A giant statue to the god Nabu stood at the entrance of the Temple of Nabu in Nimrud, Iraq. It can be seen today at the Iraq Museum in Baghdad in Iraq. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP /  CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Becoming the Divine Son of Marduk

Every new year, the people would begin a ceremony in which a statue of Nabu would be carried all the way from Borsippa to  Babylon “so Nabu could pay respects to his divine father Marduk” the patron god of Babylon. What is more, Borsippa was the location of a magnificent temple dedicated to Nabu. This temple was adorned with a grandiose  ziggurat, which is today one of the most identifiable surviving ones.

In the ancient times it was this ziggurat that was identified as the  Tower of Babel  from the Biblical stories. For the Babylonians, this lavish temple of Nabu was known as the “temple of the seven spheres” and was restored by the famed  King Nebuchadnezzar II . Rising from the flat plains all around, the tower above the temple of Nabu is a magnificent site. When the restoration by Nebuchadnezzar II was completed, the tower was roughly 70 meters (230 feet) tall and had seven terraces.

Today it survives as a partial ruin, and even so it is still an unforgettable site with its height of 52 meters (170 ft). Such magnificence, and even the fact that Nebuchadnezzar bore the name of Nabu, signify that this was a very important deity. Alas, the majestic temple of Nabu in Borsippa was destroyed in 448 BC when a revolt against the Achaemenid King Xerxes was violently quelled.

Nabu rose to particular prominence during the period known as the Old Babylonian Period, which lasted from 2000 to 1600 BC. This was especially prominent during the reign of the legendary King Hammurabi (1792 to 1750 BC), during whose rule the  male gods  in Mesopotamia became the focal point of religious worship, largely replacing old goddesses. Before this period and during it, many Babylonian literary works would always finish with the phrase “ Praise be to Nabu!” .

This custom was taken from early Sumerian literary works such as hymns and similar compositions, which sported a similar phrase in praise to goddess Nisaba. Early on in the rise of prominence of Nabu, some confusion existed in his connection to Nisaba. At first he was seen as her husband and assistant, rather than a Babylonian male version of the same deity. During this period, he is seen as Nisaba’s assistant who helps her keep the records and preserve the library of the gods.

All that is left of the ancient temple of the god Nabu in Borsippa are these ruins that can be visited today in Iraq. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP / CC BY-SA 4.0)

All that is left of the ancient temple of the god Nabu in Borsippa are these ruins that can be visited today in Iraq. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP /  CC BY-SA 4.0 )

The Patron God of Scribes and the Written Word

Nevertheless, as his cult grew steadily and he became a major deity, his connection to Marduk also grew. Marduk, as we know, was one of the central deities in Mesopotamia, whose cult was highly important in Babylon. Originally, Nabu was seen as a  scribe and a vizier of Marduk, essentially serving under him. Step by step, however, he morphed into his divine son. This was especially prominent during and after the Kassite Period. Kassites were the peoples who came to control Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire around 1595 BC up until roughly 1155 BC.

Following this period, Nabu begins to be depicted as Marduk’s son, and almost equal to him in power and reverence. Likewise, his divine role also developed gradually. Originally a scribe to major deities, his role from there naturally progressed to that of a god of  writing. As this came to be, he quickly replaced the goddess Nisaba in that role, most likely during the period when male gods became popular. As a god of writing he became the protector and patron of all scribes. From his role as a god of writing, he progressed into becoming the god of wisdom, literacy, and of science.

When it came to his appearance, Nabu wore a pointed horned cap, as did most of the Sumerian deities, and like his father  Marduk he rode on his dragon-like creature known as  Mušḫuššu (Mushkhushshu). Most depictions show Nabu with his hands clasped in a gesture of prayer, which was associated with priesthood in ancient times.

The symbol of Nabu was usually a stylus (used for writing) resting upon a writing tablet, and sometimes also a cuneiform mark in the shape of a wedge. Both symbols associate him with  scribes and writing. One iconic example of this depiction is the stone carving of the 13th century BC Assyrian King Tukulti-Ninurta I. Found at  Assur, this elaborate carving shows the king as he worships at the altar of Nabu. He first stands, then kneels in front of a small altar with a stylus and a tablet. This is one of the cases where Nabu is not depicted in his human form, but simply as an object.

Likewise, one of the most common symbols of Nabu was a single wedge symbol in  cuneiform. Either vertical or horizontal, this wedge (the essential feature of cuneiform writing) would represent the stylus used for writing it. Also, some depictions of Nabu simply show the dragon creature  Mushkhushshu with a wedge symbol on his back.

Image shows a detail from a stone monument of Ashurbanipal II from the temple of Nabu at Borsippa in Iraq. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP / CC BY-SA 4.0)

Image shows a detail from a stone monument of Ashurbanipal II from the temple of Nabu at Borsippa in Iraq. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP /  CC BY-SA 4.0 )

A Favorite of the Assyrian King

Sir Ernest Wallis Budge, one of world’s foremost scholars specializing in the history of ancient Near East, left a remarkable summary of Nabu in one of his works pertaining to Mesopotamia. In it, he includes the following description:

“He [Nabu] was endowed with great wisdom, like his father; and he acted as scribe to the gods; he had charge of the Tablet of Fate of the gods and had the power of prolonging the days of men. Like the Egyptian Thoth, his eyes travelled over the circuit of the heavens and over all the earth. He was the personification of knowledge and, as a god of vegetation, he caused the earth to produce abundant crops.”

However, at one moment in time, the powerful cult of Nabu was immensely weakened. This occurred during the time of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and the second ruler of the Sargonid Dynasty known as Sennacherib. This famous ruler sought to reassert the dominance of Assyria and Assyrian Gods, over those of Babylon. Thus he greatly downplayed the Babylonian pantheon and instead promoted the worship of Aššur (Ashur), the head of the Assyrian pantheon.

However, this situation was remedied during the reign of his son, Ashurhaddon, who sought to regain the political support of the Babyonians, and thus reinstated the primacy of their gods. During the reign of Ashurhaddon’s son, Ashurbanipal, the situation got even better: this famed king was a great patron of knowledge and literacy, and Nabu became the foremost god he worshipped.

Just how important Nabu was to  Ashurbanipal is shown in a unique archeological discovery: a clay tablet with a lengthy cuneiform text commonly titled as  Dialogue Between Ashurbanipal and Nabu.  It showcases how this Assyrian ruler saw to emphasize his godlike grandeur, but also how Nabu’s cult didn’t wane over time:

“Ashurbanipal: I constantly speak in praise of you, Nabû, in the assembly of the great gods; may the host of those who wish me ill not take possession of my life! In the temple of the Queen of Nineveh I approach you, hero among the gods, his brothers; you are the trust of Assurbanipal for ever and ever! Ever since I was a small child I have lain at the feet of Nabû; do not abandon me to the assembly of my ill-wishers, O Nabû!

Nabu: Pay attention, Assurbanipal! I am Nabû. Until the end of time your feet shall not grow slack, your hands not tremble; your lips shall not become weary in praying to me; your tongue shall not falter on your lips; Because I will endow you with pleasant speech. I will lift your head and straighten your body in the House of Emašmaš.”

The Forgotten Deities of Ancient Near East

It is interesting to note that the cult of Nabu spread far beyond the borders of the Mesopotamian region. Brought overseas by Aramaic migrants, the cult of Nabu developed in these expatriate communities. This deity was thus worshipped in  Anatolia and Egypt, where he was identified with the God known as Thoth.

Nabu also reached Rome and ancient Greece, where he was identified with Mercury amongst the Romans, and as  Apollo or Hermes amongst the Greeks. His cult was strong and widespread until roughly the 2nd century AD. As the art of writing in cuneiform became gradually lost and forgotten, so did the power of the patron god of scribes wane.

Alas, even for the most powerful of Gods, the wheel of time shows no mercy. History is turbulent, and powerful: mighty civilizations crumble, empires and kingdoms fall, and thousands of years of culture and ancient languages can disappear in a mere century. The same fate befell those once glorious civilizations of Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria, as the many millennia of their existence fell, were forgotten, and then became the stuff of hazy legends. The fate of Nabu and other major  Mesopotamian gods  is shared with these civilizations.


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